NatCell@ CF Support is a blend of adrenal and mesenchymal
cell extracts. Through Atrium Biotechnologies's
proprietary state-of-the-art technique, these extracts
are processed to collect and preserve active molecules
in their native state.
CF Support was specially formulated to alleviate
symptoms of the chronic fatigue syndrome.
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome?
to the American Center for Disease Control, Chronic
Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) is defined by "the presence
of unexplained persistent fatigue that is not
relieved by rest and that results in a substantial
reduction in occupational, social and personal
for CFS diagnosis, at least four of the following
symptoms must have been present for a minimum
of six consecutive months with a history of previous
In the USA,
early attempts to estimate the prevalence of CFS
reported that 4 to 10 adults per 100,000 (0.004
% to 0.01 %) suffer from CFS. It appears now that
this was an underestimation of the true figures.
Recent studies have more realistically estimated
that 200-700 per 100,000 people may suffer from
CFS (0.2% to 0.7%). The syndrome potentially affects
people of all ages but the onset is most common
in the early thirties (Dowsett, 1990; Shepherd,
1999). CFS afflicts women more then men, in a
proportion of 2:1 (Ho-Yen, 1991). Social background
seems to be irrelevant.
cause can explain CSF. It rather appears to develop
through exposure to convergent factors (Fig. 1),
There is a high incidence of abnormalities
in the HPA axis of people suffering from CFS.
The HPA axis is a major component of the body's
response to stress and refers to the hypothalamus,
pituitary, and adrenal
glands. The hypothalamus is located in the brain
where it physically interacts and stimulates
the pituitary gland through the release of the
corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH).
gland itself is considered as the key master of
the endocrine system. Hormones that are produced
by the pituitary control other glands activities
at distant sites throughout the body. As an example,
liberation of the adrenocorticotropic hormone
(ACTH) in the blood stream by the pituitary commands
the adrenal to secrete cortisol. Cortisol is a
glucocortical hormone also referred as the *stress
hormone*. Its role is to mobilize the glucose
reserves so that the body can respond quickly
to a challenging situation. Both CRH and cortisol
influence the immune system and cortisol. additionally
can suppress inflammation.
CFS has been
associated with smaller adrenal glands (Scott,
1999) and mild signs of adrenal failure as well
as reduced levels of related hormones are seen
in almost half of the people suffering from CFS
(Demitrack, 1998). The CRH and cortisol levels
are generally low, although still in the normal
range, in these patients. The negative feedback
loop of the HPA axis is prolonged, contributing
to maintain the cortisol level in its lower range
(Gaab, 2002). Moreover, the CRH response to exercise
(Ottenweller, 2001) and the response to cortisol.
inducers (Scott, 1998) are deemed to be impaired.
of CRH and cortisol, per se, are known to result
in extreme fatigue, decreased plasma volume, myalgias,
arthralgias, fever, allergic responses, as well
as mood and sleep disturbances, all common complaints
anomalies have been inconsistently reported in
CFS. For instance, decreased number and activity
of natural killer cells are sometimes seen in
CFS (Levine, 1998). In other cases, the RNAse
antiviral pathway is impaired opening the door
to infections (DeMeirleir, 2000). Other patients
have higher titer of infection-fighting CD8+ T
cells combined with a low count of suppressor
T cells leading to an exhausting immune overactivity
(Landay, 1991). But the most striking immunological
trait in CIPS remains a shift from cell-mediated
(Thl) to humoral immunity (Th2). The shift to
humoral immunity is marked by an increased production
of Th2 type cytokines. More IL-5 is produced that
stimulates antibodies formation. The levels of
IL-6 and IL-8 are raised as well, and these cytokines
are presumed to be involved in myopathic pain
and hyperalgesia respectively, as seen in CFS
A viral origin
has long been suspected for CSF. Indeed some features
of CSF are reminiscent of those of viral infection.
For instance, a sudden unset of illness and a
high level of antibodies to many virus are commonly
seen in patients with CSF (Manian, 1994). Arguing
against an infectious origin are the facts that
most cases of CSF appear sporadically (US Dept.
of Health, 1995), CSF does not spread through
contacts of any kind and no single pathological
agent could be pointed out (Farrar, 1995).
are suggestive of oxidative stress involvement
in CIPS (Logan, 2001; Richards, 2000; Fulle, 2000).
Oxidative stress results from the accumulation
of free radical species inside the cell. Free
radicals are molecules with an impaired electron.
This makes them very unstable molecules that react
quickly with neighboring molecules from which
they try to steal the missing electron. Once started
the process may generate a cascade of oxidation
reactions ending in serious damages to the cell.
Free radicals arise spontaneously during normal
metabolic activities so the cell has evolved antioxidant
defenses to handle them. But the cell defense
system may become overwhelmed by excessive oxidative
assaults generated by environmental factors or
in the course of illness.
dysfunction can further exacerbate this oxidative
stress phenomenon by releasing additional oxidants.
oxidative stress involvement in CIPS include a
high level of oxidative damage to DNA and lipids,
as seen in biopsy samples of patients with CFS
(Fulle, 2000). Reduced oxidative metabolism
(McCully, 1996) and mitochondrial abnormalities
in CIPS, (Behan, 1991) support a mitochondrial
defect as a contributor. Moreover, since mitochondria
supply energy to the cell through oxidative phosphorylation,
the lowe rlevel of ATP that results from a low
mitochondrial activity may explain the low exercise
capacity reported in patients with CFS (Lane,
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